Saturday, December 20, 2008

Classmate from Swarthmore is censored by the Korea Times

My friend Taru Taylor (a hallmate from Swarthmore who is now a journalist in Korea) was recently censored by the South Korean Times.   Interesting stuff on the Madagascar front, where Korea has essentially rented half the arable land on the island for the next 99 years.

Here is the article along with some commentary from Taru beforehand.

The article copied below entitled "Imperial Korea?" was published and then unpublished by The Korea Times.

What I mean is, it was put up onto the website Thursday afternoon, then taken down a few minutes later.   The executive managing editor of The Korea Times, said to me Friday morning that it had been taken down because the issue of Madagascar and Korea had been discussed in The Financial Times already. He told me that my piece was not "original".  

The only reason I knew about it having been published in the first place was that someone emailed me to compliment me on the "Imperial Korea?" article Thursday at around 4 pm. I then read it online on The Korea Times website. There were even two very critical comments, by a different reader, on the article in the commentary section beneath it. I remember him saying that my argument would've been stronger if I had not brought in Lenin and Confucius, if I had just analyzed the situation in Madagascar on the ground with more facts and details.

The article, as copied below, was published by The Korea Times verbatim. Then, I say again, it was unpublished.

It would've been OK if I had been told weeks ago, when I first submitted the article, that it would not be published. I can live with rejection. I understand that it's a provocative piece. But to be told on two different occasions that it would be published, then to actually have it published, then to have it unpublished.... an outrage!


Indeed, Orwellian.

Anyway here's the article:

Imperial Korea?

South Korea has learned well from Japan, its onetime imperial master—how to be an imperialist. Witness the recent deal between the Republic of Korea and Madagascar, brokered by Daewoo Logistics, for a 99-year lease of 3.2 million acres, half of Madagascar’s arable land. “The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” indeed! Except South Korea, too, is now a master.

One might have thought that the suffering endured under Japanese imperialism had taught Korea to sympathize with poor and oppressed peoples. That, in the person of U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, South Korea pointed the way to equity between the white bourgeois and the colored proletarians and peasants of the world. As a Black American who has suffered from the tyranny of the white majority, I thought Koreans might prove soul mates. But Korean employers requiring photos to screen out Black applicants exploded that wishful thought.

Nevertheless I eagerly applauded the Seoul street protests last spring, apparently against American beef but really against Anglo-American imperialism and its chaebol and yangban flunkies. President Lee Myung-bak apologized to the people. I felt humble before the might of the ordinary Korean. They truly seemed the beacon of the true democracy necessarily anchored in the proletariat and the peasantry.

I sought historical perspective for the beef protests and found it in the “Tonghak” (“Eastern Learning”) of native Korea as opposed to the “Western Learning” of Europe. Its slogan: “Drive out the Japanese dwarfs and the Western barbarians, and praise righteousness.” Its author: Choe Cheu, a wandering peasant martyred in 1864. He inspired the Tonghak rebellion of 1894, which compelled the Korean aristocracy to bring in 1500 Chinese troops to suppress it. He inspired “Chondogyo” (“Society of the Heavenly Way”), the indigenous religion of Korea that had changed its name from Tonghak in 1905. The first signer of the March 1, 1919 Declaration of Independence from Japan was Son Pyong-hi, leader of Chondogyo, which provided 15 of the 33 signers.

Choe Cheu—author of Tonghak and of Chondogyo—is the true hero of Korea. His Tonghak philosophy and his Chondogyo religion seem the portals for discovering Korean identity. When, last summer, I described the beef protests as a 2008 Tonghak rebellion, I meant that Choe Cheu still lived as the archetype of modern Korea. Just as Luke Skywalker led the Rebellion against Darth Vader’s Empire, the specter of Choe Cheu haunted the “new world order” from the streets of Seoul.

But South Korea lately seems more like Park Chung-hee, the mastermind who modeled South Korea after Japan. He epitomizes the Korean bourgeoisie even as Choe Cheu epitomizes its proletariat and peasantry. In America, Thomas Jefferson had advocated agrarian democracy and limited government—states’ rights—as against monopoly capitalism as commandeered by the imperial government of Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton won the debate, for first president George Washington sided with his Secretary of the Treasury against his Secretary of State. 

Although not contemporaries like Jefferson and Hamilton, Choe Cheu and Park Chung-hee are the grand interlocutors of Korean destiny. Tonghak is one portal; imperialism is the other. The “Republic of Korea” and “Imperial Korea” are the terms of the debate between the agrarian hero and the capitalist dictator. The beef protests argue for Choe Cheu; for Tonghak; for Korea as Luke Skywalker, Jedi Knight. But the Madagascar deal argues for Park Chung-hee; for Imperial Korea; for Korea as Sith Lord Darth Vader.

“Imperialism,” of course, is a heavy word, perhaps the heaviest word of current political discourse. Before we proceed with the question of Imperial Korea we would do well to come to terms with it. For, as Confucius reminds us in Book 13 Chapter 3 of “The Analects,” semantics are the essence of sound government. Asked by Tzu-lu the first thing the governor must do, Confucius replies “rectification of names.” He explains: “If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success.” So without further ado let’s rectify “imperialism” and thus put South Korea’s deal with Madagascar in perspective.

According to Merriam-Webster, “imperialism” is “the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas.” V.I. Lenin’s economic treatise, “Imperialism: the Final Stage of Capitalism” (1916), expands this definition. He first of all insists that imperialism is in essence economic, a mere function of finance capital. That imperialism is “monopoly capitalism” writ large. That imperialism is “parasitism” whereby the ruling class of the oppressor nation uses colonies to enrich itself at their expense. That imperialism has for its complement “opportunism,” that is, corruption of the elite bureaucrats of the proletariat by means of bribery. That imperialism creates privileged sections of the proletariat who thus detach themselves from the proletarian and peasant masses, what we would call tokenism.

Is there really any doubt, given the above rectification of “imperialism,” that South Korea is not now colonizing Madagascar? That it is not now Imperial Korea? That the bureaucrats of Madagascar who are making this deal aren’t Uncle Toms selling out their people just as Esau sold out his birthright to Jacob? Interestingly, Lenin cites Japan as an example of imperialism for its then recent annexation of Korea. History has come full vicious circle, for now Korea is exhibit A of imperialism for its annexation of Madagascar.

CommNexus MarketLink Program

This is a great idea - a program that pairs entrepreneurs with new business ideas with telecoms and other major multi-national organizations interested in innovation in the space.


CommNexus MarketLink is a FREE program that pairs regional companies with multinational corporations hoping to discover new business interests and partnerships. It provides a shortcut to developing new relationships by orchestrating a simple and efficient introduction process that offers selected companies the opportunity to present to executives focusing on new products and innovations in a personalized 1-on-1 session. CommNexus handles all of the logistics. All you have to do is show up.  

This portal contains the list of current MarketLink Partners that you can apply to share your company information with. These companies maintain continuous contact with CommNexus through MarketLink and review company information on an ongoing basis. Methods of follow up include personal contact from the partner companies and invitations to meet at local 
MarketLink events.

Friday, December 19, 2008

Off to Africa

It's been a busy couple of weeks with finals and packing for a month in Africa.

The itinerary looks something like this:

The worst flight plan ever.  Two red-eyes and two 11 hour layovers to go Boston-London-Dar es Salaam-Kilimanjaro.  

Then, if I survive the flights, I'll climb Kilimanjaro.  I'll be doing the Umbwe route, which is one of the more challenging non-technical ways to climb the mountain.   Packing is a doozy for this trip.  I picked up a bunch of items I didn't have - walking stick, gaiters, etc.  It's 95 degrees at the bottom and zero degrees at the top.  Then I need clothes to work in an office for the next month.  

Then I'll be spending a week with the Mass Development Association of Dar-es-Salaam, a small, community based non-profit that has made quite an impact in Tanzania.  I'll be working with them on microfinance, models of sustainable microfinance and entrepreneurship, and business training.  

Finally, I'll be spending a week on the beautiful island of Zanzibar, recharging my battreries that I can finish up strong for my last semester at MIT.

Free travel is one of the best things about MIT Sloan, I have to say.  With the focus on action labs, I've gotten to go to Silicon Valley, China and London already before this Africa trip.  I'll be going to India in March.   MIT China Lab and India Lab are amazing programs run by Jonthan Lehrich and Yasheng Huang.  Maybe I'll devote a whole blog post to how to travel in business school in the future. 

Monday, December 15, 2008

ClickDiagnostics on FoxNews

ClickDiagnostics and Ken Morse were featured on Fox News recently.  One frequent question is how Moca is different than ClickDiagnostics.   The answer is pretty straightforward - ClickDiagnostics is a business model, and Moca is an open source software project.  In fact, we would welcome ClickDiagnostics using Moca if it meets their needs for a specific deployment scenario.  I have a strong belief that especially in the developing world, open source solutions like Moca and OpenMRS are needed to scale cost-effective solutions.  However, we need thousands of companies like ClickDiagnostics, plus NGOs, governments and social entrepreneurs doing the work on the ground to make it happen.

Saturday, December 13, 2008

Great White Remediation Technologies is a MIT 100K Executive Summary Competition Finalist

Sometimes I feel like I am working on so many things that it's hard to keep track.  One project I especially enjoy is the work I've been doing with Great White Remediation Technologies.  Great White has a pretty amazing product - a environmentally friendly polymer that absorbs 77x its weight in hydrocarbons (oil, gasoline, etc).  I have been working with the inventors, two very nice R&D people out of Canada to develop a business plan and refine their pitch.  I feel proud that we have gotten it to the point where it is a finalist in the Executive Summary Contest of one of the world's most prestigious business plan competition, the MIT 100K.  If you know of anyone interested in this type of technology, please let me know.

I'm posting all the track finalists for the ESC, as I'm sure they'll be happy for the little bit of extra publicity.

Thank you for entering this year's MIT 100K Executive Summary Contest! Our
judges have asked us to tell you that they were very impressed with the high
caliber of  the entries and that choosing the finalists was a difficult task.

Without further ado, we are proud to announce this year's finalist teams! They

Cambridge Eye-Novations
Viral Optics

Global Cycle



Great White
High Definition Glass
Simprint Nanotech


All teams that entered the contest will be receiving feedback from our judges on
how to improve their entries before the Business Plan Contest kicks off. You
should receive your feedback on or before 12/15.

Track winners will be announced at the ESC Finale where we will also be kicking
off the BPC this February 5th at 6pm in Kresge Auditorium. We hope to see you
all there!

 Mira Wilczek, MIT $100K Judging Lead Organizer
 Tamara Mendelsohn, MIT $100K ESC Lead Organizer

Looking to knock the socks off the  Business Plan Contest? If so, we HIGHLY
recommend that you take this  year?s IAP offering 15.975The Nuts & Bolts of
Business Plans:

The course is open to members of the MIT Community as well as  entrepreneurs and
students at large.

It will be particularly  valuable for people interested in starting or working
in a new  business.  Some of the speakers will be judges of the MIT $100K
Entrepreneurship Competition, so don't miss this opportunity.

Friday, December 12, 2008

Social Entrepreneurship Update:, Mass Development Association of Dar Es Salaam, Olive Arbor and Moca Mobile

This year,, a site that I founded in 1999 is entering its 10th year (!) in existence. Check out this old school archive! I can't believe I called it the "Wall of Glory". I'm so embarrassed.

MassWrestling is an interesting study in community based websites. It really was Web 2.0 before Web 2.0 existed. Not a lot of people wrestle in New England relative to the rest of the country. And not a lot of people wrestle in this country relative to the number who play other sports. But those who do are passionate, and I was lucky to tap into such a community.

In my social entrepreneurship work, I stress sustainability a lot. You plan for it, you constantly drive towards it. Well, with, I got flat out lucky. In 2003, I had started a full-time job and pretty much ran out of gas running the site. A young man named Mike Atlas stepped up, we did a transition, and Mike, with his programming skill automated the site to a great degree, thus making it sustainable and retaining the strong base that had been built up over the previous three years. Mike Atlas has been an important person in the way I view entreprenuership. Before Mike, I was always a lone wolf, doing interesting things until I'd burn out. Mike made me realize that you need talented people (ideally those who can code) who understand how to run the ship, and have the same energy and passion that you do (or once had) about something.

This is the rough story in 400 words that I drafted for a business school essay I don't think I ever used:

At Thanksgiving, in 1999, I went back to visit some coaches I'd worked with - high school, club, etc. They complained about their athletes being out of shape because they hadn’t been able to find off-season clubs. Instead of wrestling, many of these teenagers had spent their free time getting in trouble. I decided that if there were a website where athletes and parents could network, it would help improve athletes’ access to the proper coaching and information required to be focused and healthy. I knew such a website could have a significant impact on this tight-knit community, but’s popularity and contribution to the sport surprised even me.

I decided would begin with a forum in order to gather input and start communication with both athletes and coaches. Word of mouth spread quickly from the initial list of contacts, and I was pleased that many people expressed interest in getting such a website off of the ground. Shortly afterwards, I added individual and team rankings, knowing this would bring in more traffic and exposure to hardworking athletes in an underpublicized sport in New England. When I started gathering tournament results for the entire New England region reported by correspondents, traffic really took off. The community grew to over 3,000 registered users (under Mike, it's now close to 10,000!).

Now that people were hitting with regularity, I wanted to make it a resource that could help athletes and their families with the challenges I faced. Having struggled to make weight myself, I built a section with nutritional information and a place for parents, athletes and coaches to discuss safe ways for wrestlers to diet. I set up an area and provided webspace for wrestling clubs so that athletes could keep improving in the off-season. I arranged for wrestlers from low income families to attend wrestling camps for free. In exchange, the camps received publicity at no cost. I used the website to help inner city schools get donations to fund their wrestling programs. I called on the collected efforts of the community to archive the history of the sport in New England, gathering tournament results and All-State teams going back to the 1970s.

And I wasn't the only one contributing - I call it Web 2.0 before Web 2.0 because a lot of others were contributing. Some wrote articles, retired wrestlers sent in old clippings of All-State teams for me to scan in, and everyone argued about rankings (nothing much has changed if you visit the new site). People still contribute - amazingly busy people like Rollie Peterkin, the Penn wrestler who somehow balances a Wharton education and being one of the nation's top student-athletes.

It was great to be a hub - something I miss being a part of. During this time, I made lifelong relationships, including friendships with parents of athletes that resulted in future employment. This included an internship at Compaq and a full-time at Collaborative Consulting. But as you get busy, it's hard to stay involved with the sport with a 60 hour a week consulting job. Still, I'm proud of the groundwork I helped lay, and what Mike and community have built since.


For my regular readers, I'll be out of touch for a couple weeks. I'm climbing Kilimanjaro starting on December 22nd. Then I'll be working on a team from MIT Sloan to develop a microfinance/training program in Dar-es-Salaam with a community based organization called the Mass Development Association. I'll also spend a week in Zanzibar the week after regrouping so I can finish up my term at MIT strong.

Olive Arbor is starting to generate some organic traffic as some of the corporate profiles get better. Still a lot of bugs to fix. Everyone I mention this idea to is excited about the idea of getting an organized view like this on how responsibly corporations are behaving. I have a lot of great data sets that need to be formatted so they can be parsed into the system.

Moca sneaks into TechCrunch. We have a big launch call with the Philippines on December 18th. Looks like I might be in Capiz for the summer deploying Moca, depending on when my new job will start.

Monday, December 8, 2008

The economics of a ski wedding and the luggage tariff

Airlines: “We’re a stupid industry led by stupid people.” –Gordon Bethune, former CEO of Continental Airlines

When I flew out to Utah this weekend, I fully intended to bring my own skis until I remember the new $50 charge each way for a 2nd piece of luggage.  Since it was going to cost $50 or so to rent skis for a couple days, and it’s annoying to lug those things around anyhow, I just left them at home.  I suppose Delta’s restrictions worked for this flight – it was lighted by the weight of my skis and poles.   The downside: I will try like hell not to fly Delta unless completely necessary.  It’s a weird policy, one that hurts more price sensitive leisure travelers more than business travelers, who tend to just have one bag.  

The flight was also delayed by a couple minutes by a guy late getting on the plane who was trying to stuff a bag that was way too big for the overhead compartment.  Everyone should be prepared for a lot of this crap on Delta flights, especially as people who don't know about the charge learn about it on the spot at airports.  And you can't really blame people - pay an extra $50 or try to stuff the bag into overhead?  

Also, I just packed one gigantic bag (we call it Big Silver) and stuffed it right to 50 pounds (on the button).  I think the tariff would make more sense if it was by weight.

Ski rentals and moral hazard: It was $2 additional at the Canyons for insurance on my ski rental.  Let’s just say that once I paid the $2, I skied in a way that I certainly wouldn’t on my own skis.  I’ll suggest that the Canyons and other ski resorts do something like $2 and even a tiny deductible.  Even if it were $5 or $10 I wouldn’t have been skiing off trails like a maniac because I would have had just a bit of skin the game.

Another idea that I came up with was to put really slow finish or wax on rental skis to reduce liability.  Speed kills, causing more frequent and more serious injuries on the slopes.  Also, $10 for a helmet rental seems a bit excessive.  I wonder if their monopoly pricing model factors in liability reduction.   There was no option to bundle in the helmet, which seems like it would be a good strategy

Gary Loveman, the CEO of Harrah’s was pretty emphatic when he visited our Economics of Information class that the ski industry was one industry that could benefit massively from information analytics and improved pricing strategies.  It certainly seems like that’s the case.  It’s astonishing how much information they could collect at the rental desk, but just don’t. 

Another reason the iPhone is amazing: sitting on the ski lift on a 45 degree day at Snowbird with one glove off, studying a PDF document with notes for my Industrial Economics final.  I’m not sure this is how Dick Schmalensee would have suggested I study for his exam, but it was way more fun that locking myself in Dewey.  

On a side note, check out this article my colleague Mike Atlas sent me about a life saving amputation using details sent via text message.   More about Mike and the amazing work he has done for in the next social entrepreneurship update.  

A few other good links:

Depressing way to look at how bad stocks have performed this year versus other years in history.

Lightspeed Venture's Consumer Internet Predictions in 2009

Moca Mobile in the USAID/NetSquared Competition

Balloting is open in the USAID Development 2.0 Challenge and Moca Mobile is a competitor.  It would be much appreciated if you would vote for us here!  

Drop me a comment or e-mail if you vote for us, I'll owe you one!

Check out these slides if you want to learn more.

Wednesday, December 3, 2008

Water Quality and Global Health

I made it over briefly to the Innovation for Global Health at Harvard today today where I chose the Water Quality and Global Health breakout session lead by Dr. Colleen Hansel and Dr. Mark Koopman. It was very interesting discussion that raised a couple of interesting questions. One particularly salient one is that water quality seems to have dropped off the map as a major issue for social and developmental entrepreneurs.

Collen and Mark started off talking about an interesting case that I didn't know about. Apparently, in the 1970s, the World Health Organization drilled wells all over Bangladesh to tap groundwater. It turned out the water table in Bangladesh has naturally occurring arsenic, leading to the biggest mass poisoning in history. Oops.

Water can of course be contaminated by many things - micro-organisms, metals, industrial bi-products, etc. One especially interesting one discussed was pharmaceuticals - especially anti-biotics, which causes an increase in antibiotic resistant germs. The problem is, there isn't one single test for all these things, and they all require different remediation techniques.

There is a need for improved diagnostics and remediation, but innovation seems to be incremental in this space rather than rapid as we see in other areas of developmental entrepreneurship. While people like Colleen and Mark have some very neat technologies they are developing, there is not the same snowball that we see with other areas like mobile phones or microfinance.

Colleen and Mark asked for ways to get people interested in the issues. Short of the inevitable war over water rights or new Bond movie stimulating interest, a couple interesting ideas were generated. One of the problems is that water quality is a fragmented problem - there are lots of problems with water (from the pollutants to access to drought to sanitation issues), not one major one to deal with. People interested in various issues invariably intersect with it because of the tie-in with health. For instance, Grameen Bank insists on recipients of their loans boiling their water and creating latrines before being eligible for loans - the decreased rate of health problems increases the likelihood the micro-loan will be re-paid.

I thought that an X-Prize for water diagnostics and purification might be of interest. Colleen even suggested so much that if they could miniaturize a Raman spectrometer and reduce the cost, that would be close an acceptable solution for the diagnostic side. Essentially, an X-Prize would help frame the problem in a compelling way and make it an exciting one for innovators to try to solve.

In any case, a very worthwhile afternoon spent talking about an issue I profess to know little about except for the times my dalliances in corporate social responsibility and global health have inevitably run into issues related to the management of precious resources like water.

Tuesday, December 2, 2008

Verizon VP Anthony DiMaso on the Transforming Telecommunications Industry

Anthony DiMaso, Verizon’s Vice President of Corporate Strategy and Development stopped by at MIT Sloan today to give a talk about his perspectives on what is going on with the rapidly transforming telecommunications industry.  The talk was sponsored by the MoMIT club.

Three primary forces impacting the global telecommunications industry are globalization, demographics and technology.  This means accelerated development, increased complexity, increasing fragmentation to go along with intensifying fragmentation.  

Convergence is a challenge with a national group (Verizon Wireless), Verizon Telecom (regional in 28 states and DC) and a global business.  Global innovation, scale and distribution are good, but it means frequent business model disruptions, competition from global players and increasingly complex logistics.   

DiMaso laughed about how when they broke up Bell, AT&T took long distance, then considered the best business and left the local lines.  Within a space of 20 years, long distance has become a lousy business.  These types of paradigm shifts are accelerating.  

Telecoms are in a challenging position keep building network to meet increased bandwidth for devices that are now always on and connected.  Said DiMaso, “You can’t think of yourself as connectivity provider, but an ecosystem enabler and creators of seamless platforms – smart homes, compelling user experience, and content delivery.”  This is where Verizon’s innovation is focused.  Four specific areas Verizon is focused on are FiOS broadband and video, mobile broadband and content, enterprise managed solution and unified platforms and services. 
DiMaso argues that there is no more “mass market”.  Each user wants a customized user experience to fit their needs.  He continued on to say that in the frame of the rapid paradigm shifts, Verizon must continue to create value for its customers by investing in areas that new business models and technologies are enabling.  

Furthermore, growth in certain demographics means change.  For instance, growth in mobile usage by the elderly means that telecommunications and health care will be more integrated in the future because of customer demands.  DiMaso sees change like this as an opportunity.  He hinted that Verizon had product offerings like an ADT security offering and a emergency alert system for the elderly (it sounded similar to the "I've fallen and I can't get up" product with integrated continous monitoring).

Overall, Verizon’s markets are growing – broadband and global wireless markets are expected to increase substantially.  Global broadband will increase from $138 billion to $250 billion and wireless revenues $784 billion to nearly $1.3 trillion.   However, with rapid innovation occurring in this space and big players like Apple now in the game, how the pie will be sliced up is key.  DiMaso seems to have a good handle on the types of innovations that are necessary to keep telcos from becoming dumb pipes.  

I posted a slide deck I created outlining potential strategies for mobile network operators which I thought would go along nicely with this post.  

Speaker Bio

Anthony J. (Tony) DiMaso is Vice President – Corporate Strategy & Development for Verizon Communications. In this capacity he has responsibility for corporate business strategy, the development of major business partnerships, the negotiation of agreements that support key corporate objectives, and the identification and assessment of industry and technology trends, issues and opportunities.

Mr. DiMaso was previously Vice President, Global Sales for Verizon’s Enterprise Solutions Group. In this capacity he had responsibility for sales and customer support for Verizon’s largest business and Federal Government customers.

Mr. DiMaso began his career in New York Telephone Company in 1981 and moved to AT&T Information Systems in 1983. He joined NEC America in 1985 as an Account Manager and was Director of National Distribution and Director of the Major Systems organization prior to taking the position of Director, Strategic Marketing for the Private Switching Group in 1989. Mr. DiMaso joined TeleSciences Inc., a developer and integrator of telecommunications support systems, as Director of Marketing in 1990. In 1994 Mr. DiMaso was recruited as Branch Manager for the Upstate New York region of NYNEX and in 1996 was named to head the firm’s largest branch in New York City. Following the NYNEX/ Bell Atlantic merger he was named Vice President-Market Management for Bell Atlantic’s Enterprise Business Group with responsibility for development and management of the organization’s go-to-market strategy.

Mr. DiMaso has an MBA degree from C.W Post as well as a Bachelor’s degree from the Johns Hopkins University. He and his family live in Northport, NY.

Mobile Network Operators and the Future of the Mobile Internet

Here's a deck I put together on mobile network operators and what I believe their strategies to avoid the fate of the ISPs suffered in becoming dumb pipes.  
Ted Chan - Mobile Network Operators and the Future of the Mobile Internet